The genesis of astronomy lies in the historical observation of the sun and moon from the Earth’s surface. The observers of astronomy are also known for the observation of stars and heavenly bodies and their physical characteristics. The moon, the sun and the stars have different patterns on different days and seasons of the year. The patterns and the physical characteristics of the sun can be determined through Azimuth. Azimuth is the measure of inclination of the sun, moon or stars from the true north with the observation taken from the Earth’s surface. In the observation of the observation of the physical characteristics of the sun and the moon, the main instruments that one needs to use are the alidade, astrolabe and the compass. Each of the three devices has significant functions in the astronomical observations. The alidade has the sole purpose of pointing to the direction of the moon or star that is under observation. The astrolabe enables the astronomy expert to determine the approximate altitude of the sun or moon that is under observation. Finally, the compass enables the data entry official in astronomy to determine the true north during the observation process.
The historical context of astronomy draws from the religious practices of different people. The main observation was on the sun and the moon. The observation of the sun and the moon was meant to tell the communities on the changes in the weather patterns. The observation of the sun and the moon enabled the communities to predict the rainy and the sunny seasons and to project the time for harvests. The importance of the astronomical observations in history, therefore, lies in their ability to help the ancient communities prepare for severe weather conditions and predict the future weather trends. The observation of the sun and the moon are also of religious benefit to the communities as the communities could identify the time to worship. The main religion that is known to use astronomy is Islam. The observation of the sunset was of significance, and is still important to the Islam community as they are able to set the time deadlines for worship.
Astronomy serves as the first science in the old age as it was evidence with the drawing of the heavenly bodies cross times and the eclipses that were experienced. Through astronomy, those living in the 15th and 16th century were able to predict the existence and changes in the weather patterns within a particular geographical region. Observation of the sun and the moon is of importance to a populace as it enables one to determine the weather patterns and prepare for the agricultural activities that one is set to conduct.
The aim of this paper is to determine the direction of movement of the sun and the changing in angling of the sun as it moves. The main premise of the paper is to determine if the movement of the sun is currently moving to the east. There is a four week observation report that depicts the changes in the color and shape of the moon and the color of the sun in determining the foreseeable changes under measurement. The data that is presented in the report is collected from Abu Dhabi in the Middle East.
The paper discusses the important results that pertain to the observation of the sun and the related characteristics of the sun and the moon in regard to the direction, altitude an observable characteristic that they depict. The paper is, therefore, a report of the observation of the sun and the moon by group members. The observation period for the project takes place from the 10th September to 4th October, spanning four weeks. The observation data encompasses the date of the observation, the sunset azimuth, and the azimuth of the moon at the time of the sunset, altitude, phase of the moon and the additional notes taken from the observation.
Observation section of the project is the core of the project. The observation proves enable the group to key in the data that is needed in the presentation. The main tool that is used during the observation process is the astrolabe. The astrolabe is the main tool that measures the azimuth of the sun. The data that is presented from the observation includes the overall observations of all the group members regarding the Azimuth of the sun and the moon from Abu Dhabi. While the Azimuth enables the group members to view the changes in the azimuth of the sun and the moon, the compass has the primary purpose of determining the angling of the sun and the moon from the true north.
The main factors takes into consideration in the observation are the azimuth of the sun and the moon. The observation period is during the 1800hrs per day of observation. Due to the time of the observation, the moon is not visible thus the need to establish the Azimuth of the moon from secondary sources. During the observation, the color of the sun changes to red. The red color that is visible emanates from the red wavelength emanating from the sun. The red color has a longer wavelength thus the visibility of the red color in the horizon.
The most important results that one can establish begin from the second day of the observation. The sunset azimuth on 13th September is 272 with new moon observable. The sun is seen disappearing before reaching the horizon. Disappearance of the sun is credited to the weather. The azimuth of the sunset on 13th, 15th, 16th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 23rd, 24th, 26th, 28th and 29th September are 272, 269, 265, 263, 266, 265, 263, 266, 259, 261, 262 and 260 respectively. The observation time is within the range of 1800 and 1830 hrs. There are three observable changes in the phase of the moon that are visible from the project. The phase of the moon on 13th, 21st and 28th September are new moon, half a moon and full moon (lunar eclipse) respectively.
The data sets that are presents show the observational records of the positions of the sun and the moon at different time intervals. This means that at any given time there is a difference in the position of the sun and the moon in relation to the point from which the observant is making the observations. Implying that this celestial bodies must be changing angles each and every time that an observation is made. The concept of Azimuth now has to come into play and help shade light on certain observed phenomena.
The azimuth described the angle that exists between the celestial body that is the sun and the moon from the North as the point of origin of the observant. The measurement takes place in the clockwise direction and around the observers as the point of reference. It determines the direction that the celestial body is moving in this case the sun and the moon which are both rising from the east. For instance, the sun or the moon that is due north has an azimuth reading of 0, any that is due east is 90, west is 270 and south being 180 degrees respectively.
The results obtained therefore show the difference in the Azimuth observed at almost same time interval but with a little difference. The observations are made at for different months at almost same time. The observations are made at the time of the sunset and different shapes of the moon, changes in the intensity of the sunlight and color are observed and monitored. It is notable that the color of the sun changes at sunset into from yellow to intense due to the varying detectable light emission range that at that particular time happens at different wave lengths.
Having obtained the Azimuth, it is applicable with certain calculations to obtain the angles of elevations that is the changes in the angles from the observer’s local plane. The angle of elevation is then becomes the vertical angular displacement in between the celestial body and the observers local plane.
There are notable changes in the angle and altitude of the sun during the observation. The angling of the sun on 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd and 23rd on the months of October are 56.4, 56.0, 55.6, 55.3, 54.9, 54.6 and 54.2 degrees respectively. The Azimuth values depict a change and titling of the sun to the southwest and northwest directions. The directions depict that titling does not conform to the initial hypothesis that the azimuth values depict that the tilting was to take place to the east. The values of the Azimuth are expected to range from 0-360. The Azimuth value is determined by the value of the drift of the position of the object from the true north. An increase in the value of the azimuth of the sun depicts an increase in the value of the wavelength that the sun produces. When the azimuth values of the sun rises, the observation of the sun is seen to be red owing to the high wavelengths that can be seen. The Azimuth values further show that the position of the sun is to the west of Abu Dhabi as at the time of taking the observation. The position of the sun means that there is no eclipse that takes place.
The old ideas existed under the circumstances that it is the sun that goes around the earth. The new notions of astronomical studies have revealed that it is the earth that has the tendency of going round the celestial bodies. The earth is one of the nine planets that revolve around their axes. The moon and the sun are therefore sample celestial bodies that the earth moves around other than the visible stars.
The sun never moves but the earth revolves around the sun. To get the speed, it is from knowledge that it takes 366 days an equivalence of one year for the earth to go around the sun. The circumference of the sun is known thus it is possible to get the distance around the earth. Using this concept, it is possible to get the speed at which the earth rotates. Meaning the speed of rotation is always constant but through observation and weather changes, the eyes are deceived that the speed of the sun is varying as time pass by.
The change in the number of angles per day is projected to be three. This is realized through the observation and other experiments. The sun does rise from the east depending on the time of observation and takes about six to seven hours for the intensity of the heat radiated to vary. Around 1 pm, it is noticed to be strong and concentrated suggesting the second change in the angle of elevation and the that change in the angle of elevation is noticed at very low intensities of varying light emission that ranges from yellow to very red colors. It is therefore, the varying azimuth that can be used to calculate the number of times that the angle of elevation changes. For the observations made and presented above, the sun rises at (06:21-1000) and changes to solar noon (12:08-56.40) and finally sets at (17:55-2600) which are the changes in the angle of the sun respectively as observed on 17/10/2015.
Discussions and future directions with regard to the present project draw from the previous evidence that emanate from previous studies. The study by Galileo provides the evidence that the project further affirms. The study by Galileo affirms that the moon has valleys and objects on its surface that enables it to illuminate light. As such, the three changing shapes of the moon that are evident in the study affirm the common belief that the direction and positioning of the moon determines its azimuth against that of the sun. The changing shapes of the moon are, therefore, evidences of the changes in the Azimuth of the sun and the azimuth of the moon.
The paper focused on determining the direction of movement of the sun and the changing in angle of elevation of the sun as it moves. The sole purpose of the paper is to investigate if the movement of the sun is currently taking another direction. The project involved a four week observation report that depicts the changes in the color and shape of the moon and the color of the sun in determining the foreseeable changes under measurement.
An explanation to the different notable color changes lies in the fact that the emission of light always happens in variety of range from very short to the longest. These ranges fall under what is referred to as the wavelength and as they hit the optical lenses, they are seen as different colors. The naked eyes that are used for the observation act and function in a similar way as the optic lenses giving the same results ,a possible and valid reason for why there are variety of colors as the sun sets. On the other hand, the number of times that the angle of the sun changes can be accounted for by the change of varying radiation intensity monitored and observed from the time that the sun rises till it sets.
The future speculations in relation to the sun, like the stars that are made up of masses of the glowing gases, a time is come that the sun too will have small radiation effects subject to depletion of its components. This is much evident in the way some of the very bright stars have gone dim and some that used to have a specific pattern at a given time of the year have disappeared and are no longer in existence.
In conclusion, the disappearance of the sun from the horizon at the observation hours is attributed to the changes in weather. The observation of the moon also proves that the moon rises after the sunset. Another visible feature of the sun during the sunset is that it becomes more reddish. The red color of the sun is attributed to the longer wave length that it depicts. Therefore varying azimuth can be used to calculate the number of times that the angle of elevation changes.