The practice of structuring curriculum incorporates adherence to aspects such as education setting, activities, and goals of the system, teacher interest, and educational technologies. Some of the questions appraise fundamental understanding of curriculum planning, appraisal of student learning, and instructional design. The topics explore the materials and resources for every content area, as well as suggestions for utilizing them: constituents of curricula and their organization; the integration of concepts within every content area, plus the pedagogical inferences of the curriculum; forms of curricular materials and resources. The topics explore content-precise teaching and learning principles in line with their relevance for suitable and successful instruction: methods to highlight, appraise, stimulate, and add to prior knowledge, experiences and skills that certain student presents to every content area (Berry & Adamson, 2011). The topics investigate content-specific and overall appraisal procedures and the inference for utilizing the laid procedures appropriately and successfully: conventional and standardized testing methodologies inclusive of standardized tests, screening tests, and basal reader tests that are suitable for employment in each content area.
Curriculum theory derives from five points of references to structuring curriculum, namely: self-actualization, social reconstruction, cognitive processes, academic rationalism, and utilitarianism. Academic rationalist approach essentially centres on disciplinary knowledge, while cognitive process hinge on intellectual reasoning skills regarding problem solving. Multiple Intelligence theory delivers its greatest contribution within the education by implying that teachers should broaden their stock of skills, approaches, and tools, as well logical skills commonly employed within the classrooms (Shapiro, 2011).
In order to guarantee that the students attain the expected content standards by accomplishing performance levels, it is essential to select guidelines that shape teacher knowledge and comprehension. There is widespread agreement that high qualified and successful teachers are critical to enhancing student performance, and there is rising interest on the individual’s teacher’s influence on student attainment. Effective teachers bear high expectation for all the students and aid students to learn as outlined by value-added or test-based measures, or substitute measures (Srivastava & Sarita,2005). The evaluation should also seek to unearth if the teachers contribute to constructive academic, social, and attitudinal results for students. Teachers should also utilize various diverse resources in planning and structuring the learning chances, appraising student informatively by employing numerous sources of evidence.
Curriculum evaluation is critical in gaining feedback, which is essential for modifications and processes of curriculum implementation. This pertains to certain pros and cons of the curriculum plus its implementation, fundamental information regarding the strategic alterations and policy implementations; critical inputs for enhancing learning and teaching, and pointers to monitoring (Brock, 1994). Student appraisal is critical in aiding the comprehension of the influence and outcome of the programs. Student mastery can be appraised via diverse methods inclusive of oral interviews: practical employment of procedures and concepts, written tests, and enquiring the students recall or teach the concept or skill to another person.
Technology should be employed to aid educators attain the educational needs of all students. Technology fosters differentiated instruction as a way of actively appraising student engagements. Nevertheless, technologies cannot be perceived as solutions in isolation, but rather key ingredients in enabling schools address core educational challenges. Technology serves as a key enabler in instructing and learning to: aid organize and avail structure for material for the students; aid students and teachers in their interaction; foster and aid in the validation and prioritization of internet material; and, assist students to create, envision, and interrelate with the scientific structures, models, and processes.