Pollution is one of the adverse consequences of human activities on the earth. Factory smoke, car exhaust, and dangerous emissions during fires poison the air. Life-threatening chemicals fall into the sea, rivers, and lakes from factories and farms. Landfills and nuclear wastes continue to contaminate the land at an alarming rate. Officials of developed and developing countries regard the air pollution, soil, and water contamination as the main environmental problems, whose solution requires the effective approach. Due to the complexity of these issues, the identification of the adequate type of abatement requires time and joint efforts.  The current paper seeks to examine the sources and effects of the pollution, as well as the costs/benefits associated with the implementation of the plan.

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Air Pollution

Automobile exhaust, emissions from the chimneys of factories, power plants, and fires poison air. In particular, the burning of oil, gas and coal in the atmosphere produces so much carbon dioxide that the Earth will soon warm up. Global warming can melt the polar ice thus significantly increasing the sea level by almost forty inches. In this case, some of the areas, including the territory of the Netherlands, will be flooded. The warming of the entire planet can occur due to this phenomenon. Acid rain is the result of emissions into the atmosphere caused by the activity of the industrial enterprises.

 This kind of precipitation is very harmful to buildings, plants, fish, and humans. Air pollution has an adverse impact on people’s health. Because thus issue, the number of heart diseases, cancers, and deaths from heart attacks has significantly increased in recent years. Cities are choking due to the fact that millions of cars exhaust a large amount of harmful gas, and, unfortunately, no urgent measures have been taken yet. Therefore, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is still high. In addition, the traffic fumes contain a lot of soot and toxic chemicals.

Soil Pollution

Vast areas of the earth surface are contaminated with human waste. Many of the wastes are toxic, dangerous to the life of animals and people. Scientists have estimated that one city resident emits one ton of garbage within one year. The majority of experts face difficulties in finding a place to store non-hazardous plastic. However, most of the waste is really toxic and even radioactive. People are not always aware that the harmful production waste is stored nearby. Some states, whose legislation severely punishes the disposal of hazardous waste, export it to other countries.

Water Contamination

There are a few rivers in the world that have not been contaminated by human waste yet. Fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural lands, water from sewage, and drainage ditches fall into rivers. Some plants pour into the streams of dirty water into lakes and seas. The pollution of rivers and lakes caused by nitrate fertilizers is increasingly growing; therefore, the situation is only getting worse. Nitrates slowly seep through the ground into the rivers or lakes, but over time, the outcome will be overwhelming. A modern man does not recognize the fact that all things that they have are the products provided by the earth and sea and, therefore, they should protect these scarce sources. If the environmental pollution continues, the result will be stunning. 

Nuclear Waste

The waste from nuclear production is the most dangerous for all living creatures as it can cause cancer, DNA changes, and death. Humankind requires thousands of years to eliminate the effects of harmful emissions and radioactivity. Liquid waste is pumped into the sea, and the gas is released into the air. In most cases, radioactive waste is buried and stored in containers on the ground. It is very dangerous as harmful substances can leak at any moment.

Cost-Benefit Analysis

The usefulness of cost-benefit analysis in regard to the pollution issues can be undermined due to the dangers and hazards facing the developed and developing countries seeking positive, environmental changes. The relevant abatement techniques are based on the precise control of soil, water, and air pollution. The policy and initiatives include particular limitations on the amount of emissions that industries are allowed to emit. Moreover, the time restrictions and land use planning are also crucial for reaching the favorable outcome. The majority of experts associate the environmental damage with the concentration, not the level of emissions.  However, the relationship between these two aspects is complex and depends on the specific conditions of the place. It is also difficult to predict the impact of changes in the level of emissions on the concentration of pollutants and how the reduction in emissions will change the situation for better.

Despite difficulties with the calculation, experts find the cost of abatement technologies manageable and identifiable in most of the cases. For example, individuals, who seek changes, can purchase the technological devices such as filters for particulates and flue gas desulphurization units in the market. The cost of fuel substitution measures can be also easily calculated due to the market price of fuel. Although the specificity of market functioning differs worldwide, subsidies and taxes can be included in the price. The use of border prices for fuels is also relevant in this case. The adequate measures may diminish the adverse effects of numerous pollutants. Power stations can switch from coal to gas thus lowering harmful emissions.               

The cost of pollution abatement varies due to the location, and, therefore, it is necessary to be aware of its specificity in order to get the accurate presentation of the current situation. The availability of the measures can also vary due to the fact that the use of natural gas often depends on the access to vital supplies through infrastructure and geographical location. From the economic perspective, the correct cost of environmental pollution damage reflects the value of one’s readiness to pay for improvements and accept the compensation for deterioration. The annual cost of complying with the current plan ranges from $1-2 billion. It includes investment in the transition to the alternative options and savings due to the energy efficiency. 

The pollution abatement is worthwhile only in the case if benefits exceed expenses. Returns are available through investment in medical facilities and education. The development of the adequate prevention plan will help to address the issue of environmental pollution in a proper manner that is to eliminate waste and its initial generation.  The environment is protected only through the reduction of toxic releases. At the same time, the effective pollution plan saves money on waste disposal and treatment. Other benefits include the reduction in expenses on equipment, operations, raw materials, and staff resources. All the organizations are encouraged to use such scarce resources as water and energy more efficiently. In the case of successful implementation of the plan, workers’ health and safety will be improved due to the high quality of air. The low toxicity of substances will alleviate the protective equipment and regulatory requirements. In this case, there is no need for precise control, reporting, permits, and manifestations as customer’s loyalty, relations in communities, and organizations’ image will be improved.   To conclude, the global warming is the inevitable phenomenon due to the fact that soil contamination, water, and air pollution continue to affect the planet adversely. Adequate measures are required to address this issue in a proper manner. No doubt, the cost of pollution abatement will exceed expenses and bring benefits to the communities. The organizations are encouraged to demonstrate their readiness to pay for changes as, otherwise, the situation may become even worse due to inaction and indifference.